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B - Y
Blue minus luminance(Y). One of two color difference signals used in encoding NTSC composite television signals.

Backhaul
Term used to describe the transmission of a signal (normally video) from the end of a microwave or broadcast system to a central point.

Bandwidth
A measure of the information carrying capacity of a communications channel; the higher the bandwidth, the greater the amount of information which can be carried. A range of frequencies available for signaling in a communication channel.

Baseband
The transmission of unmodulated signals, usually by direct current, over short distances on a communication channel.

Basic Rate Interface (
BRI)
See ISDN.

Beam splitter
For tele- oto/ophthalmoscopes. Allows direct visualization through the device into the eye or ear by the clinician, while still routing a portion of the image to the video camera. This is usually preferred by the clinician who is accustomed to looking directly through the device rather than at a video monitor.

Bell System
A group of affiliated RBOCs (Regional Bell Operating Companies) in the USA which operate under consistent rules and specifications, many of which are set by AT&T.

Bipolar with 8 Zeros Substitution (B8ZS).
A method for 1's density control for bipolar transmission signals such as T1.

Bit depth
The number of colors or levels of gray scale a scanner or monitor supports. An 8-bit scanner can differentiate between 256 (28) levels of gray. A 12-bit scanner supports 212 = 4,096 levels of gray.

Bit Error Rate (BER)
Bit Error Rate, the absolute number of errors which may be present, often experssed as xxE-y, where x is a floating point value and y is an exponent. A measure of quality of digital transmission systems. Expresses the ratio of correct bits to erroneous bits. To overcome transmission errors, many codecs include forward error correction , important for transmission of highly compressed data.

Bit Map
Screen memory such that each pixel corresponds to one bit in memory for monochrome screens or several bits for colour screens. Representation of characters or graphics by individual pixels arranged in row (horizontal) and column (vertical) order. Each pixel can be represented by one bit (simple black and white) or up to 32 bits (high-definition color).

Bitmapped Graphics
Images which are created with matrices of pixels, or dots. Also called raster graphics.

Bit Specifications
Number of colors or levels of gray that can be displayed at one time. Controlled by the amount of memory in the computer's graphics controller card. An 8-bit controller can display 256 colors or levels of gray; a 16-bit controller, 64,000 colors; a 24-bit controller, 16.8 million colors.

Bits Per Pixel (BPP)
The number of bits used to represent the color value of each pixel in a digitized image.

Bits Per Second (BPS)
The number of binary digits transmitted per second in a data communication system.

BITNET
The acronym for Because It's Time Network, an international electronic network. BITNET, privately owned by a consortium of U.S. colleges and universities, has about 2,500 host computers located primarily at universities.

Bit-rate Allocation Signal (BAS)
In Rec. H.221 and T.120, a word within the frame structure used to transmit commands, control and indication signals and capabilities.

Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH)
A forward error correction technique with low-overhead, often used for videoconferencing as in H.261.

BRA
European term for BRI

Bridge
Device used to interconnect three or more telecommunications channels such as telephone lines, to permit simultaneous, two-way communication among all points that have been interconnected.

Broadband
Communications which are capable of carrying a wide range of frequencies. Broadcast television, cable television, microwave, and satellite are examples of broadband technologies. A facility or circuit that has bandwidth in excess of that required for high grade voice communication.

Bursty data
Short, intense transmissions of grouped, related information. Sometimes called "boluses of data" by medical clinicians.

Bus
A network of computer devices that are connected by a shared



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