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D4
A T1-transmission framing and synchronization method, consisting of a series of digital 1's and 0's in a unique order, one member of the series being sequentially inserted in a T1 stream after each 193 bits. See also B8ZS .

Data Communication Equipment (DCE)
A configuration protocol which identifies Data Communication Equipment, the type of data connection at equipment which connects to a communications facility. Important when interconnecting RS-449, RS-232, V.35, X.21 and other digital signals. Compare DTE .

Degradation Category Rating (DCR)
Degradation Category Rating, an ITU-T P.800 subjective testing protocol, similar to CCR but is based on the test subject always listening to the reference signal, followed by the signal passed through the device under test, a test performed by HEI.

Degradation Mean Opinion Score (DMOS)
an ITU-T P.800 subjective listening test where the test subject compares two signals, first the reference, then the signal passed through the device under test, a test performed by HEI.

Delivery System
The equipment used by end users to run or "play" an interactive program.

Delta Frame
Also called Difference Frame. Contains only the pixels different from the preceding Key Frame. Delta Frames reduce the overall size of the video clip to be stored on disk. Also see Key Frame.

Differential Interframe Coding
In motion video compression. The transmission of only the difference information between adjacent video frames.

Digital Access Cross-connect System (DACS)
Included as part of public and private digital networks, a DACS may commonly switch DS3, DS1 and DS0 signals and is useful for configuring complex networks. A DACS is not a substitute for an MCU.

Digital camera
Captures images (still or motion) digitally and does not require analog-to-digital conversion before the image can be transmitted or stored in a computer. The analog-to-digital conversion process (which takes place in CODECs) usually causes some degradation of the image, and a time delay in transmission. Avoiding this step theoretically provides a better, faster image at the receiving end.

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)
A standard for interconnection of medical digital imaging devices, developed by the ACR-NEMA committee sponsored by the American College of Radiology and the National ctrical Manufacturers Association. DICOM v.3.0 is a vendor-independent standard for data formats and transfer that emphasizes point-to-point connection. SEE ALSO RIS.

Digital Information
coded in discrete numerical values (bits). Digital data streams are less susceptible to interference than analog data streams. Also, because they are made up of zeros and ones (bits) than can be manipulated and integrated easily with other data streams (voice/video/data).

Direct Digital Imaging
Involves the direct capture of digital images (e.g., an MRI) so that they can be electronically transmitted. This is in contrast to an x-ray that is first made into a film and then photographed for digitization to send or store.

DISPLAYS
Flat panel displays, cathode-ray tubes and related technologies which emphasize cost-effective increases in screen size, resolution, and image quality. Technologies include liquid crystal, electroluminescent, plasma and vacuum fluorescent.

DS0
The AT&T Bell System level 0 digital standard for systems operating at 64-Kbps.

DS1
The AT&T Bell System level 1 digital standard for systems operating at 1.544 Mbps and consisting of 24 DS-0 channels.

DS3
The AT&T Bell System level 3 digital standard for systems operating at 44.736 (45) Mbps.

Dual Communications Interface
An interface which allows simultaneous transmission of the two halves of a set of communications data over two similar communications interfaces. The most common application is for connection using two switched 56 Kbps transmission circuits or an ISDN-BRI (2B+D).

Duplex audio
Full duplex describes the ability of both ends of a conference to speak and be heard simultaneously (like a regular phone call). Half duplex audio supports only one site speaking at a time; other speakers will be cut off.

Dynamic Examination
The ability of the consultant to "interview and examine" the patient WITH the remote/deployed medical provider thru the use of scopes, live video and still images.


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