- Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
- A US body regulating, approving and licensing radiated electromagnetic
signals including broadcasting and telecommunications.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
- A high bandwidth networking scheme that uses fiber optic cable. The
topology relies on two rings for redundant 100Mbps transmissions. FDDI uses
a token passing access method similar to token ring which results in a more
deterministic performance than the contention-based Ethernet. FDDI-2 is a
second generation of FDDI networks that support Isochronous channels that
may enable voice and video over these networks.
Fiber Optic Transmission System (FOTS).
- With little transit time delay and very low bit
error rate, the superior method to transmit digital video signals.
- A device that allows scanning of existing static images so that the images
can be stored, manipulated or transmitted in a digital form.
- A computer connected both to the Internet and the local HIN that prevents
the passing of Internet traffic, in the form of IP
packets, to the internal hospital network. Provides an added layer of
protection against 'hackers'. There are two kinds of firewalls: external,
which protect all hospital systems form the outside world, and internal,
which protect only selected systems. Firewall disadvantages: it restricts
information transfer in both directions, and makes file transfer (ftp) and
telnet (remote login) more difficult. See access
- Data and/or program software for the codec
or other electronic device stored in a non-volatile form in a semiconductor
memory circuit. For codecs, the firmware is often housed in a plug-in module.
Forced Intraframe Coding
- 1. In motion video compression, immediately following a significant scene
change, the differential, predictive and inter- frame coding aspects are
temporarily disabled. The information then transmitted for the first changed
frame is derived entirely from within that frame. 2. In motion video
compression, static parts of the image are periodically refreshed to
mitigate the effects of error build-up in the system.
Forward Error Correction (FEC)
- A mathematical technique in which a syndrome is generated and transmitted
with data so that, at the receive location, processing of the syndrome along
with the data will allow correction of errors caused by the transmission
system. Depending upon the FEC technique used and how it is applied, the
transmitted codec signals may be made more or less robust in the presence of
line transmission errors.
Frame Delete Compression
- In H.261 motion video compression, the total discarding of from zero to
three consecutive video frames as part of the compression process. Its use
depends upon the degree of video motion existing and the aggregate bit rate.
- Captures, into a computer, the analog display output of cameras, VCRs,
etc. A device that "captures" and potentially stores one complete
video frame. Also known as Frame Storer.
Frames per second (fps). See Frame Rate. Frame rate
- Frames per second (fps) displayed on a video monitor. A frame rate of
25-30 fps is consider 'full motion' and is what most broadcast video
operates at. A frame rate of 15 fps is noticeably 'jerky'. Slower frame
rates may be inadequate for gait and motion observations and analysis. See NTSC,
- A service that supports data rates in the range of 56 Kbps to 1.54 Mbps.
The Frame Relay circuit often comes in different levels of committed
information rates (CIR). A 1.54 Mbps Frame Relay circuit with a 768 Kbps CIR
would indicate that you would never drop below 768 Kbps transmission
capability, and could burst up to 1.54 Mbps. RBOCs
can offer Frame Relay cheaper since they can oversubscribe these circuits to
users and share the bandwidth.
Framework for European Telemedicine Services (FEST)
- FEST is an European Community (EC) funded project with some 22 partners
and associated partners . The main objective is to develop a framework for Telemedicine
- One method of transmitting still images over standard telephone lines. A
single image is transmitted every 8 to 30 seconds. This feature is useful in
a medical consultation. It allows the consultant to get a well framed and
focused still image of a lesion or other item of interest for closer
examination. Often images captured from a live video source are of higher
resolution than the live video picture and as a result may provide more
Full Common Intermediate Format ("Full sif", FCIF).
- A 352-by-288 video format that is described by the ITU's H.261
specification. A measure of video resolution. Considered by some a
requirement of telemedicine video. See QCIF.
- A communication channel over which both transmission and reception are
possible in two directions at the same time. A standard telephone line is a
full duplex system because people on either end of the connect can
simultaneously speak while listening to sounds coming from the other end.
Full Motion Video
- A standard video signal that can be transmitted by a variety of means
including television broadcast, microwave, fiber optics, and satellite. Full
motion video traditionally requires 6 MHz in analog format and 45 Mbps when
encoded digitally. Industry agreements are still needed for efficiently
mapping advanced digital video streams into ATM
and handling the effect of "cell jitter" in applications where
video and audio synchronization is crucial. Since 1994 there have been
multimedia experiments over MBONE (Multicast backBONE) primarily by NASA and
the military. Some form of video compression normally is used to reduce the
amount of data and to allow it to be read from disk quickly enough. The time
taken for compression can be relatively long; decompression is done in
real-time with the picture quality and frame rate varying with the
processing power available. Two compression standards discussed with full
motion video are H.261 and MPEG. H.261
was developed before 1992 to work with ISDN
and support video conferencing.