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US National Bureau of Standards (NBS)
National Information Infrastructure (NII )
The NII is a U.S. government policy first established by the Clinton Administration.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
NIH Responsible for the development of Federally funded medical and health related research. It is the sponsoring organization of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and houses one of the largest governmental, non-military supercomputers. NIH is funded by the Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
NIST is the component of the HPCC responsible for translating Federal research into applied technology that will improve efficiencies and stimulate excellence.

National Library of Medicine (NLM)
National Library of Medicine is the largest library dealing with a single scientific/professional topic. It has over 4.5 million holdings. It offers extensive on-line information services dealing with basic biomedical research, clinical care, toxicology and environmental health. One NLM service is HSTAT - Health Services Technology Assessment Text, an NIH initiative to develop national standards of clinical care. The NLM has several active research and development programs designed to improve the medical library system in the United States (including an extramural grants program). It was one of the first medical libraries to develop a web site.

National Research and Education Network (NREN)
A biotechnology network that features transmission of digital images, intelligent gateways to retrieve information from multiple life science databases and innovations in educational techniques. It serves about 1 million scientists and educators.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
Federal agency responsible for the National Information Infrastructure (NII) Initiative. National Telecommunication and Information Administration gopher site has documentation about telecommunications funding.

National Television Systems Committee (NTSC)
National Television Systems Committee of Electronic Industries Association (EIA) that prepared the standard of specifications approved by the Federal Communications Commission in 1953 for commercial broadcasting. NTSC is the standard for the U.S., Canada, Japan, Central America, 1/2 of the Caribbean & 1/2 of South America.

NTSC Format
The standard format for broadcast television in the United States. Also called "composite video" because all of the video information, i.e. sync, luminance and color, are combined into a single analog signal. A color television format having 525 scan lines; a field frequency of 60 Hz; a broadcast bandwidth of 4 MHz; line frequency of 15.75 KHz; frame frequency of 1/30 of a second; and a color subcarrier frequency of 3.58 MHz.

Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT)
The principal Japanese common carrier. As AT&T has done in the USA, so NTT has produced many of the transmission standards for use in Japan.

Nyquist Criterion
In sampling. For a sine wave, the sampling frequency must be no less than twice the maximum signal frequency.

Ocular tube adapter
Allows a camera to be mounted to any microscope. This feature is needed to adapt a telepathology system to an existing ocular microscope without a camera port. Capturing images through an ocular tube has some disadvantages that must be weighed against the cost of a new scope.

A European consortium that is developing advanced applications Medical Informatics for the optimization of clinical laboratory systems (LIS).

Open System (Network)
A system which permits connection to a variety of other systems or technologies.

Оptical carrier level 1 (OC-1)
SONET rate of 51.84 Mbit/s, matches STS-1

Optical carrier level 3 (OC-3)
SONET rate of 155.52 Mbit/s, matches STS-3

Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
Computer software that scans a digital image and converts the image into the corresponding characters and numbers.

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