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A time division, multiplexed digital transmission facility, usually provided by a phone company and operating at an aggregate rate of 1.544 Mbps and above. Series of transmission systems using pulse code modulation technology at various channel capacities and bit rates to send digital information over telephone lines, including optical fiber lines, or another transmission medium

T1 (also known as DS1)
AleasedT1 line, marketed and serviced by LECs, that provides 1.544 Mbps data rate (in N. America; the European T1 provides 2.048 Mbps). T1 is available almost everywhere, and can be fractionated. Fractional T1 services are less expensive than full T1. Typical interactive video-mediated telemedicine programs transmit video images at "1/4 T1" rates (384 Kbps).

These are standards set by the ITU-T governing the collaboration features of many videoconferencing packages.
T.120 (suite specification) An ITU-T overview Recommendation describing: Transmission Protocols for Multimedia Data; including multilayer protocols which considerably enhance multimedia, MCU and codec control capabilities, permitting greater MCU operational sophistication beyond that described in H.231 and H.243.
T.121 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Generic Application Template
T.122 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Multipoint Communication Service (MCS) for Audiographic and Audiovisual Conferencing -- definition
T.123 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Protocol Stacks for Audiographics and Audiovisual Teleconference Applications -- Final version and new draft (10/95)
T.124 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Generic Conference Control for Audio-Visual and Audiographic Terminals.
T.125 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Multipoint Communication Service Protocol Specification
T.126 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Still Image [Conferencing] Protocol Specification
T.127 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Multipoint Binary File Transfer Protocol Specification
T.128 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Audio-Visual Control for Multipoint Multimedia Systems
T.130 (Suite description) ITU-T Recommendation describing: Real-time Architecture for Multimedia Conferencing. This suite of standards introduces such concepts as virtual networks, virtual and distributed MCUs and many more innovative new network architecture approaches for voice, video, graphics, data etc. Fully supports T.120 suite and a variety of coding and transmission methods.
Note that the numbering and content of the T.130 suite specifications is subject to change during this formative period. This glossary will be updated as this important standards suite develops.
T.131 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Real-Time Stream Multipoint Communications Service.
T.132 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Real-time Link Management.
T.133 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Audio-Video Control Applications Protocol.
T.134 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Network Dependent Interface Management for PSTN.
T.135 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Network Dependent Interface Management for ISDN.
T.136 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Network Dependent Interface Management for LAN.
T.137 ITU-T Recommendation describing: Network Dependent Interface Management for ATM.

T3 (also know as DS3)
A carrier of 45 Mbps bandwidth. One T3 channel can carry 28 T1 channels. Transmission of both voice and data digital signals at speeds of 44.736 Mbps and higher.

Telecommunications Standardization Sector of the ITU (TSS) Teleconferencing
Interactive electronic communication between two or more people at two or more sites, which make use of audio equipment, audiographics computers, video systems and high grade dedicated lines that allow for voice, data, and/or video transmission.

Geographic separation between two or more providers during a consultation.

The detection of a disease by evaluating data transmitted to a receiving station from instruments monitoring a distant patient.

An image transmission and receiver unit that operates over communication facilities where the transmission unit includes a direct digital imaging device or film digitizer and the receiver has basic image processing capabilities.

The use of computer-based information processing in telecommunications and the use of telecommunications to allow computers to transfer programs and data to one another.

The investigation and monitoring of patients and the education of patients and staff using systems which allow ready access to expert advice and patient information, no matter where the patient or the relevant information is located. The three main dimensions of telemedicine are health service, telecommunications, and medical computer science

Telemedicine research Lab (TRL)
part of U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command at Fort Detrick, Maryland. This is the staff office responsible for day-to-day operation of the DOD Telemedicine Test Bed and includes work on projects such as MDIS, ProMed, T-Med, and the Telemedicine Validation Initiative. This office was called the Medical Advanced Technology Management Office (MATMO).

Interaction between medical personnel of different training levels- i.e. GMO and Pulmonologist, Physician's Assistant and Emergency Physician, Medic and Battalion Surgeon. The use of audio, video, and other telecommunications and electronic information processing technologies to provide individual guidance or instruction, for example, involving a consultant guiding a distant clinician in a new medical procedure. Telemonitoring The use of audio, video, and other telecommunications and electronic information processing technologies to monitor patient status at a distance.

The use of telecommunications for nursing care.

The use of robotic and other devices that allow a person (e.g., a surgeon) to perform a task at a remote site by manipulation instruments (e.g., lasers or dental hand pieces) and receiving sensory information or feedback e.g., pressure akin to that created by touching a patient) that creates a sense of being present at the remote site and allows a satisfactory degree of technical performance (e.g., dexterity)

The specific application of telemedicine.

Television Receive Only (TVRO)
An earth station capable of receiving satellite TV signals but not of transmitting them; a "downlink."

Temporal Filtering
In video compression, the recursive removal of redundant pixels on a frame-to-frame basis, a major factor controlling final image quality.

Terrestrial Carrier
A Telecommunications transmission system using land based facilities (microwave towers, telephonelines, coaxial cable, fiberoptic cable) as distinguished from satellite transmission. SEE ALSO Common Carrier.

Thread-of-Life Communications
Communications, generally in emergency situations, where only minimal communications facilities are available. This often refers to the operation of video codecs at transmission bit rates of 56 Kbps or 64 Kbps, equivalent to one voice circuit.

The amount of data that can be transmitted over a network in a given period of time.

Miniature pictures of images using very small, low resolution data files. These download for display very quickly, and can be compared on-screen to select the proper high-resolution image.

Timebase Corrector (TBC)
A device used in conjunction with a playback from a VCR to provide sufficient timing stability to permit successful encoding of the video signal by a video codec. Some codecs include a built-in TBC.

Time-Division Multiplex (TDM)
Time-Division Multiplex, the sharing of a transmission network by a number of users versus time.

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol TCP/IP
The most popular open-standard protocols used in data networks today. The Internet Protocol is used to route packets of data on a network.

Transmission rate
Amount of information / unit of time that a technology such as a regular (POTS) or digital (ISDNor T1) phone line, satellite or wireless technology, or local area network (LAN) can transmit. A typical POTS-based modem can transmit 33.6 thousand bits (Kbps) of information/second. In Telemedicine Today's 3rdAnnual Program Review, 7 of the top 10 North American TMED programs conducted some or all of their teleconsultations at 384 Kbps.

Transmission Speed
The speed at which a message passes over the line. This can be defined in either bps (bits per second) or baud (number of discrete electrical signals sent in a unit of time.)

Turn-key system
A Telecommunications system in which all components and installation services needed for operational teleconferencing have been provided by a single vendor or contractor.


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